Category Archives: Psychology/روانناسى\روانشناسى
My Personal Statement
Domestic Violence against Single and Married Women in Iranian Society
The Chicago School of Professional Psychology
The following paper, is an overview of the current statistical picture of domestic violence experienced by both single and married women within Iranian society. Although numerous independent studies on domestic violence against women and children have been conducted on small scales in Iran, they have never been widely published or utilized due to political issues. The discussion in this paper are directly derived from the only widely accredited research carried out on a massive scale, supported and funded by the Iranian government in order to tackle the issue of domestic abuse.
An Overview of Current Iranian Research and Possible Underlying Etiology
Definition: The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence begins their fact sheets with the following words: “the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior perpetrated by an intimate partner against another. It is an epidemic affecting individuals in every community, regardless of age, economic status, race, religion, nationality or educational background.
Violence against women is often accompanied by emotionally abusive and controlling behavior, and thus is part of a systematic pattern of dominance and control. Domestic violence results in physical injury, psychological trauma, and sometimes death. The consequences of domestic violence can cross generations and truly last a lifetime.” Following this statement, the organization provides harrowing statistics about women who suffer from domestic violence nationally and the adverse effect of the children who witness this violence. For the most part, it is safe to argue, that culturally, it is not acceptable to engage in violence towards women openly. Physical assault is punishable by law and also has its social consequences of shaming; although, many liberal and democratic societies still struggle with the double standards and lack of gender equality. Those deeply rooted inequalities can account for the high numbers of domestic abuse within such societies as the United States and even European nations.
Background: In Iranian society domestic violence takes on an entirely different shape. Women are not only subject to harsh treatments by an authoritative state, which rules on every aspects of their public lives, but it also provides the arena and encourages the control of their private lives. The government does so by promoting fundamentalist ideas of women as properties of me. It does so by setting up an unequal legal system and not punishing assault even when it has resulted in severe injury or at times even death. The conversation of domestic violence then cannot be simply domestic but begins to take the shape of a systematic violence, fueled by tradition, ignited by religion, encouraged by the dominant authoritarian state, and empowered by poverty and illiteracy.
The Islamic Republic of Iran has always denied the existence of domestic abuse, violence towards women and children in the family as a sociological issue within Iranian society. Most of the violence in the family is deeply tied to the societal and governmental laws of inequality towards women. Most violence towards women even has governmental sanctions, such as flogging or imprisonment, and even in some cases death for adultery. If the regime accepted domestic abuse as a problem, it had to also address the way it enables, allows, encourages, and ignores, violence towards women.
Human rights organizations, political/humanitarian oppositional groups and advocacy groups for women were the only voices that acknowledged the existence of this widespread phenomenal in Iran and fought for changes in law and education within communities.
Due to the large percentage of women in higher education, and the Universities in Iran, in the past 15 years the numbers of Masters’ and PH.D thesis on women’s issues have been overwhelming. Universities are now even discouraging students from researching on the topic of women’s issues, due to the fact that the findings are not implemented into improvements or societal progress. The papers simply sit in libraries and collect dust, which can be very discouraging.
Up until recently, there was no official statistical data on how many women suffered from domestic violence in Iran and what shape or form it was in. The common law dictated that what happens in the house has to stay in the house. A man’s household affairs very much belongs to him and other’s can not meddle in his private issues, especially regarding how he treats his wife and children. The way to continue keeping his privacy is through the silencing of the voice of dissent: women. This policy very much resembles how the Islamic Republic deals with political unrest in Iran and International outrage. We often hear that the West should not interfere or have an opinion with the way Iran deals with its people.
The Census Bauru in Iran, which is an official government agency has never conducted a study on domestic violence and has not allowed international organizations to do so either; however, in 2004 The Women’s Center for Presidential Advisory, The Interior Ministry, and The Ministry of Higher Education decided to undertake a project in Iran’s 28 provinces, regarding domestic violence in Iran. A 32 volume study was concluded after several years. These volumes include findings regarding violence towards women and children, family issues, divorce, and marriages, remarriages, the statues and effect of education and work on violence in the capital cities of each province. Only the main cities were visited and the research was conducted based on questionnaires.
These 32 volume findings are not widely available for public viewing; however, it is available to scholars and researchers as a reference at the Center for Research in Tehran. The information has also been shared with government agencies and lawmakers in the hopes of changing family laws.
Much discussion and controversy has surrounded the study, including the bias of the researchers themselves in their findings. This massive study was led by Iran’s renowned sociologist Dr. Ghazi Tabatabaei, who is still a professor in Tehran universities. Many other well-known researchers/ scholars, sociologists, psychologists, and professionals in other areas participated and contributed in this study.
A brief summery of some of the findings:
Due to the fact that Iran is a multi ethnic/ multi cultural country and is very diverse, the findings of the study show that the results from each province differ from each other very much. The study clearly shows a correlation between violence against women and living in provinces further away from the capital; which could be explained from many angles including economically, sub-cultures of the region, dominance of religion, and lack of higher education.
The research had 9 main categories and 45 subcategories.
The 9 categories include:
1. Verbal Abuse
2. Physical Abuse
3. Emotional Abuse
4. Economical Abuse (refusing her right to have a job, restricting her opportunities, taking her income, restricting allowance, etc.)
5. Legal Abuse (a husband has a legal right in Iran to take his wife’s full rights away, by restricting her from traveling, going out of the house, etc.)
6. Educational Abuse (restricting the right to go to school)
7. Neglect (restricting food, not feeding/adequately providing for a family)
8. Sexual abuse (unwanted sexual activity within a marital relationship, including rape, forced pregnancy, forced abortions, restricting wife’s access to healthcare and birth-control, extra-marital affairs)
9. Honor killings and Murder
Based on the study 66% married women in Iran are subjected to some kind of domestic violence in the first year of their marriage, either by their husbands or by their in-laws.
All married women who were participants in this study in Iran have experienced 7.4% of the 9 categories of abuse.
5.23% of married women in the study reported having experienced near death violence or feared for their lives due to domestic violence.
8.37% of married women in the study reported having experienced severe physical abuse.
7.27% of married women in the study reported having experienced educational and career restrictions.
2.10% of married women in the study reported having experienced sexual abuse; however, this number could be severely under reported due to the taboo surrounding the topic.
From these 2.10% who reported sexual abuse, 5.2% reported having a miscarriage due to severe beatings by her husband.
52% of married women in the study reported having experienced emotional abuse.
9.63% of women in the study reported wishing their husbands would die, as a result of the abuse they have experienced.
The study shows a direct correlation between women who have a higher education and are career women and experiencing a lower level of domestic violence.
The study also shows that the higher the number of children in a family, the more likely domestic violence will occur towards the woman.
The chief of police in Iran stated that 40% of all murders in Iran happen due to domestic violence and that 50% of all women who are murdered are done so by someone in their immediate family and mostly in the very home of that woman.
More often than not, defenders of men who have killed their wives bring up that the husband was suspicious of adultery. The law is very lenient and is ready to forgive men while punishing women.
The discriminatory laws in Iran may yet claim another victim to be executed by stoning to death for the “crime” of adultery. There are 8 cases in Iran on the brink of death through stoning anytime soon and one such case is that of a woman named Kobra Najjar a victim of domestic violence, for 12 years was beaten repeatedly and forced into prostitution by her husband to support his heroin addiction.
Kobra Najjar found herself in prison when Habib, a “client” of Kobra seeing her sorry plight decided to murder her husband. Habib was sentenced to death by the Tabriz High Court for the murder together with Kobra Najjar as an accomplice.
What makes this case unusual and deranged is that it shows the disparity and unequal treatment of women under a penal system favoring men over women. Serving eight years for the murder and 100 lashes for fornication Habib was released upon paying compensation to the victims’ heirs. In contrast Kobra Najjar who has also served eight years remains in prison her fate uncertain as she faces the prospect of being stoned to death anytime for adultery. Now how sick is that, forced into prostitution but under Iranian’s Discriminatory laws against women she is guilty of adultery even though she was systematically subjected to violence to force her into submission for prostitution.
In Iran’s perverted justice system under Article 83 of the Iranian Penal Code, a married person is committing adultery when they have sexual intercourse with anyone other than their spouse. Adultery is the only crime where women is sentenced to stoning and all sexual intercourse outside of marriage is illegal that can result in flogging, or hanging for the forth offense. Now how perverted is that?
Kobra Najjar under constant beatings was forced into prostitution clearly did not have any choice or say on the matter was definitely a victim. She is seen under the cross eyed Iranian sadistic judge who obviously sees only the sexual intercourse but not the circumstance of one who was victimized. It does not matter whether she was forced through coercion and violence she is an adulterer therefore deserve to die the most painful savage medieval death by stoning.
In Iran a 13 year old girl is old enough to legally marry and considered as an adult at age 8 years and 9 months, old enough to be sentenced to stoning, flogging and hanging for adultery and fornication. Iranian gender biased law favors men where pedophiles are likely to prevail over the girls and women they victimized facing the risk of being convicted should they go to courts.
Women and girls face insurmountable obstacle in getting a divorce, forced to stay even if she was in an abusive marriage and most likely lose custody of her children above age 7 to her husband and the children’s paternal grandfather. In contrast men can marry up to 4 girls and woman and can divorce them at will. The rules of evidence make it extremely difficult for women to prove their case in court should the wife decides to file a case of domestic violence her testimony is only worth half of a man’s testimony. Rape is even more impossible if not incredulous under Iranian rules of evidence; her testimony as if half its worth of a man is not bad enough has to be corroborated by men in order to prove her claims. Under this scenario a rape victim is at the mercy of her rapist and most likely end up getting sentenced for adultery, now that is truly disgusting.
References in Farsi
جانشین معاونت ناجا:آمار قتلهاي خانوادگي در ايران روبهافزايش است -. (n.d.). In مجله زنان. Retrieved August 01, 2009, from http://www.zanan.co.ir/spip.php?article1021
وضعيت خشونت در خانواده در ايران. (n.d.). In وضعيت خشونت در خانواده در ايران. Retrieved August 1, 2009, from http://www.pezeshk.us/?p=2900
داوری, �., & سلیمی،, �. (1386). جامعهشناسی کجروی. تهران: انتشارات حوزه و دانشگاه.
خشونت مرگبار خانوادگی |. (n.d.). In انجمن جامعهشناسی ایران. Retrieved August 01, 2009, from http://www.isa.org.ir/node/1709
References in English
Afifi, T. O., Enns, M. W., Cox, B. J., Stein, M. B., Jitender, S., & Asmundson, G. J. (2008). Population attributable fractions of psychiatric disorders and suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. Population attributable fractions of psychiatric disorders and suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences., 98(5), 946-952. Retrieved May 11, 2008, from PsycINFO.
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE FACTS. (2007, July). In National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Retrieved July 28, 2009, from http://www.ncadv.org
Facts & Figures on Violence Against Women – Say No to Violence against Women. (2007, November). In UNIFEM – United Nations Development Fund for Women. Retrieved July 28, 2009, from http://www.unifem.org/campaigns/vaw/facts_figures.php
Renner, L. M., & Markward, M. J. (2009). Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation Among Women Abused in Intimate. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation Among Women Abused in Intimate, 79(2), 139-154. Retrieved April, 2009, from [EBSCOHost].
A Safe Place: domestic violence shelter, counseling, and help programs. (n.d.). Retrieved August 01, 2009, from http://www.asafeplaceforhelp.org
World: Violence Against Women — In Iran, Abuse Is Part Of The Culture. (n.d.). In Payvand, Iran News, Directory and Bazar. Retrieved August 01, 2009, from http://www.payvand.com/news/03/nov/1159.html
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The follwing comments are brought to this page from the Iranian.com website. To see more comments and idea pleas visit:
|Recently by Azad||Comments||Date|
|I would really like to know why my posts keep getting deleted||
|Nov 13, 2009|
|Sep 15, 2009|
|The complexities of human sexuality, and Islamic laws and regulations in Iran||
|Sep 12, 2009|
Cost of progress
by javaneh29 on Sat Sep 12, 2009 10:11 AM PDT
No one here is defending Islam. How can we. The issue is about domestic violence , unless your reading something Im not and DV is universal. That is all we are saying. And I think we agree that Islam cultivates and even advocates violence to women.
However let me ask you this : imagine if you can, that you are an Iranian woman. Choose your age, where you live, but lets say you are married to a man who beats you. Lets agree that you have 1 or more children. What would you do ? where would you go ? What protest would you make? And ask yourself this …. what would be your expectation from having made that protest/ complaint and keep it real. Then tell me that it is still easy for a woman in Iran to stand up to DV.
And btw why is it only a very small number of men in Iran defend womens rights to a life without DV? What do you do ?
Ladies You posted, but did not answer my question
by Cost-of-Progress on Fri Sep 11, 2009 11:07 AM PDT
True that violence against women is not unique to Islam or Islamic countries. That is not the point here. The point is:
Where else do we have institutionalized marriage for 9 year old females?
Where else do we punish the rape victim for the crime instead of the rapist?
Where else (other than Utah) is OK to have multiple wives?
You people need to stop defending Islam.
Is it the “72 virgins and the boys without hair” mentioned in koran that tempts you? But, you’re women for crying outloud. Then what is it?? WHAT?
We are the only nation on earth who embrace those who invaded and raped our people and culture. Sickening.
vaghan ke ajab mardomi hastim!!!
by Iraneh Azad on Fri Sep 11, 2009 04:25 AM PDT
But not surprising considering who is ruling our country today . I’m sure that some people will try to justify this behavior by Iranian men and say that this is part of our “culture”.
by MiNeum71 on Fri Sep 11, 2009 03:57 AM PDT
This is a very sad truth. I’ve written many, many times in this place stating UN-data, that the Iranian society (in and out of Iran) doesn’t respect women’s rights. This shows how uncivilized the Iranian society is.
by capt_ayhab on Thu Sep 10, 2009 01:36 PM PDT
Violence and rape against women has nothing to do with religion nor nationality.
According to National Organization for Women, 3 women are murdered every day in USA by their intimate partners.
According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, women experience about 4.8 million intimate partner-related physical
assaults and rapes every year.
According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, which includes crimes that were not reported to the police, 232,960 women in the U.S. were raped or sexually assaulted in 2006. That’s more than 600 women every day.
According to the same report younger women[age 20-24] and women from impoverished sectors of society are at greatest risk of violence and rape.
The blog is informative, however it fails to put into perspective the pandemic nature of violence against women in other countries and it lacks comparability.
Violence against women knows
by TheMrs on Thu Sep 10, 2009 01:20 PM PDT
Violence against women knows no boundary or religion. It is purely a matter of power. The more women are impoverished, the more they are powerless. This can happen, and does happen every where. Even the article mentions a positive correlation between higher education and lower instances of violence. And more violence as you move away from larger cities. The more socioeconomic progress women have, the more power they have. Hence, lower instances of abuse. You can bash any particular factor, such as ethnicity, religion or something else. But the fact remains the same. It is purely a question of power. Hala in our case, shansemoon be eslam khordeh. But you can’t take that and use it as a main factor here because without it, if women are powerless, you’d see the same thing.
Now we can take religious conservatism as an obstacle to women’s emancipation. That I can understand.
Cost of progress
by javaneh29 on Thu Sep 10, 2009 12:04 PM PDT
It matters not whether you agree or disagree … these are the result of psychological and socialogical studies.Im sure you’re clever enough to find those studies yourself if you dont want to take my word for it.
As for Islam being the reason for the violence in Iran, how would you explain violence in non islamic countries?
Violence to women is almost always done by men, like it or not. Islam provides the perfect breeding ground for violence in that it allows the legal means to carry it out with no disincentive or reprisal. However violence to women is universal.
by Cost-of-Progress on Thu Sep 10, 2009 11:51 AM PDT
“Women who sufer any form of violence on a regular basis inevitably suffer from fear and low self esteem and are therefore unlikely to feel able to change their situation, including denouncing the religion of thier culture, kin and kith easily.”
I do not disagree with the premise of your post! —- B U T —-
“the religion of their culture“? This is not their culture, it was forced by the sword. Just becasue it has been a long time does not make it right – or just. This religion is responsible for these atrocities and we MUST start somewhere, hence the denouncement. I have no illusions that, if at all possible, it will take generations (plural) to cleanse our country of this cancer. This is provided we even make the attempt.
Right now, most folks think of this regime as an anomaly in the wonderful world of Islam instead of the norm. No matter what comes out of the muslim world, they discount its validity buy saying that “this is not true islam” – But IT IS.
Let’s not kid oursleves ….anymore.
We know that even 1% is
by TheMrs on Thu Sep 10, 2009 11:45 AM PDT
We know that even 1% is unacceptable for these categories. But I wish the authour would put into perspective for us. For example, how do we compare to other countries in the region? Are our numbers better? If so, maybe we can figure out why and encourage those aspects that seem to be working for us. If not, then we should find out why. How do we compare with Western countries? I think the comparison would be helpful. Otherwise, 7.2% here and 3.2% they don’t do much other than document (which I understand is useful). Also, do we know if these numbers are increasing or decreasing? For raising the legal age for marriage for example. What is the legal age for marriage for countries in the region or other religious countries. Is it higher than Iran, how did they push the laws to increase the age?
Have to add
by javaneh29 on Thu Sep 10, 2009 11:26 AM PDT
These are only the reported incidents. I have no doubt that the incidence of ‘violence’ in any of the above forms can be multiplied by at least 10, if not more.
Women who sufer any form of violence on a regular basis inevitably suffer from fear and low self esteem and are therefore unlikely to feel able to change their situation, including denouncing the religion of thier culture, kin and kith easily.
None of this comes as a surprise. It also is no suprise that there is little in the way of support for these long suffering women.
Question for the female Islamist
by Cost-of-Progress on Thu Sep 10, 2009 11:41 AM PDT
“…Iranian gender biased law favors men
where pedophiles are likely to prevail over the girls and women they victimized facing the risk of being convicted should they go to courts.
Women and girls face insurmountable obstacle in getting a divorce, forced to stay even if she was in an abusive marriage and most likely lose custody of her children above age 7 to her husband and the children’s paternal grandfather. In contrast men can marry up to 4 girls and woman and can divorce them at will. ”
We have all have been aware of these sick, 7th century ass backward and respressive Islamic “laws”.
I HAVE ONE QUESTION FOR THE WOMEN WHO EMBRACE THIS CULT(SOME FREQUENT THIS WEBSITE):
What on earth compels you to defend, to belong, to agree, to subscribe to such teachings and endorsments? This is one sick, perverted cult forced upon your ancestors. You do not have to abide by these barbaric “laws” – free yourself from this arabic hell……….denounce it..
by Shepesh on Wed Nov 25, 2009 01:15 AM PST
Thank you for this article
by Shepesh on Thu Sep 10, 2009 09:24 AM PDT
It is very informative.
|The complexities of human sexuality, and Islamic’ laws and regulations in Iran|
|vokradio.com, Los Angeles, CA, USA|
Interpersonal relationships in Iran
Currently under Iran’s theocratic Islamic Government, based on Islamic law (Shari’ah), all interpersonal relationships are clearly expressed. As a rule the relationship between the sexes are narrowly restricted to lawful (Hallal) or illegal (Haram) categories. A relationship is considered to be legal only between a brother and sister, a parent and his or her children, and an uncle or aunt with his or her sibling’s children. Every other relationship, be they sexual on non sexual, outside of these narrow boundaries is forbidden and illegal.
A sexual relationship is only permitted within a heterosexual marriage. Homosexuality is completely forbidden (Duran, Khalid 1993), and the proximity of persons of opposite sex outside of marriage is authorized only within the limits set under Islamic law.
All sexual relations that occur outside of a traditional, heterosexual marriage (i.e. sodomy or adultery) are illegal and no legal distinction is made between consensual or non-consensual sexual activity.
As a result, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) rights described under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN, 1948). “Sexual rights are universal human rights based on the inherent freedom, dignity, and equality of all human beings…Was states that sexual health is the result of an environment that recognizes, respects and exercises the rights of sexual freedom.” (Britton Patti PhD 2005).
In Iran since the Islamic Revolution of 1979 have come under overt governmental persecution. International human rights groups have reported public floggings and executions of lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals. (Wikipedia.org).
In contrast, under the rule of the last monarch of the Pahlavi Dynasty, homosexuality was tolerated even to the point of allowing news coverage of a same-sex wedding. However, homosexuality was still taboo in the society. A homosexual individual could not depend on the support and guidance of his or her family or friends and public agencies geared toward assisting youth or people who were confused or questioning their sexuality were non-existent.
Societal views toward homosexuality have not changed. Many LGBT people are pressured by their family and society to conform to a heterosexual lifestyle, which in some cases even leads to forced marriage. Unmarried men and women who have reached a certain age are considered “suspect” and will often be asked to explain their situation (Safra Project-Iran 2004).
The official view of the Iranian Islamic government is that everyone should be heterosexual and that homosexuality is, “a violation of the supreme will of God”(wikipedia.org), and punishable by death even homosexual relations that occur between consenting adults in private do not escape punishment.Homosexual conduct is proven by the testimony of four male witnesses who is present during the events is not required by Islamic law.
The punishment for female homosexuality involving persons, who are mature, of sound mind, and consenting, is 100 lashes. If the act is repeated three times and punishment is enforced each time, the death sentence will apply on the fourth occasion. (Articles 127, 129, 130) The ways of proving lesbianism in court are the same as for male homosexuality. (Article 128)(Kar Mehrangiz 2008)
According to Iranian Islamic president, Mr. Ahmadinejad : “In Iran we don’t have homosexuals like in your country.” “In Iran we do not have this phenomenon, I don’t know who has told you that we have it,” Ahmadinejad said to the Columbia University audience. (NEW YORK -AFP2007 )
The restrictions imposed by the Islamic government are in opposition to the long history of Iran. The most stories and poetry of classical Persian literature are explicitly illustrates the existence of homosexuality among Iranians. The most classical Persian literature is replete with homoerotic allusions, as well as explicit references to beautiful young boys and to the practice of pederasty. (Babayan K, Afsaneh N 2008)
A significant amount of major traditional and well known Persian literature explicitly illustrates the existence of homosexuality among Iranians.
Some example: . In some poems, Sa’di’s beloved is a young man, not a beautiful woman. In this he followed the conventions of traditional Persian poetry. In the Gulistan Story 18, he states:
When I was young, my intimacy with a young man and my friendship for him were such that his beauty was the Qiblah of my eye and the chief joy of my life union with him’:
Perhaps an angel in heaven but no mortal
Can be on earth equal in beauty of form to him.
I swear by the amity, after which companionship is illicit
No human sperm will ever become a man like him. (Shaikh Saa’di 1258 ACE)
After the establishment of the Islamic regime, Ayatollah Khomeini gave a fatwa that allows sex change operations in Iran. Therefore some homosexual men undergo sex change operations to avoid harsh penalties including imprisonment, execution or both.
Transsexualismis still a taboo topic within Iranian society and no laws exist to protect post-operative transsexuals from discrimination and transsexuals still report societal intolerance.
Sexual orientation and gender identity
Due to the restrictions imposed by the current regime in Iran, social gatherings in which unrelated men and women are present are illegal especially if the women are not completely covered from head to toe. In addition, dancing and music are strictly forbidden.
Even though heterosexuality is the only tolerated sexual orientation, having a heterosexual relationship other than a legal marriage is just as strictly forbidden as homosexual relationships.
Some Iranian women often runaways, have been cross-dressing as a man in order to avoid being the victim of sexual harassment, rape and to access economic opportunities, which are often only given to men. Women dressing as men or barbers cutting the hair of women short are both illegal.
Islamic tradition does not allow cross-dressing. A man should only dress in male clothes. Men who cross-dress as women or are deemed to be too effeminate will also face harassment or criminal charges. The one exception is for transsexualism. There has been a rash of public executions in Iran that have involved youth or were related to sexuality and gender identity.
Gay Iranian couples are often afraid to be seen together in public, and report that LGBT people were widely stereotyped as being sex-obsessed child molesters, rapists, and diseased ridden degenerates.
Girls, Virginity, Stoning:
The most traditional Iranian culture demands that a bride be a virgin for her first marriage. A girl who loses her virginity before official marriage are agreed upon is not considered as having behaved immorally, women can ruin the family honor by not maintaining their virginity prior to marriage, or by involving themselves in extramarital affairs.
Iranian women can be punished by stoning to death, if they have extramarital intercourse or fornication (zena). Although the penalties for non-marital sex included in the current Islamic criminal code also apply to men (if the female partner is not married), they incur little or no social disgrace for illegitimate sex. If caught in such relationships, men can often escape punishment by producing evidence of temporary marriage to their partner.
Stoning is a pre-Islamic punishment. It was once practiced in many parts of the world, but in recent years has been almost entirely abandoned except in a few Islamic countries principally Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran and Saudi Arabia
Victims are guaranteed a slow, torturous death because the stones are deliberately chosen to be large enough to cause pain, but not so large as to kill the victim immediately. If the condemned person somehow manages to survive the stoning, he or she will be imprisoned for as long as 16 years but will not be executed.
Honor-Killing, and human sexuality in Iran
Honor killing, means honor murders of persons, mostly women who are perceived as having brought dishonor to their family, and their society are often identified with Islam, although the other religion has a common believe in this regard. The most Islamic countries officially or unofficially are agreed with the concept of honor killing. In Iran , south of Iraq, and Afghanistan honor killing are legal or slightly punished. Sexual intercourse with person who is married to someone else can carry a harsh penalty according to the Islamic criminal code. (Kar Mehrangiz 2008)
A woman can be targeted by (individuals within) her family for a variety of reasons, including: refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce even from an abuse husband or (allegedly) committing adultery. The mere perception that a woman has behaved in a way that “dishonors” her family is sufficient to trigger an attack on her life
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, according to addendum 2 to article 295 and article 226 of the Islamic penal code, if someone murders another on the assumption that the victim was “vajeb al-ghatl” [literally, “necessary to be killed” ], he will not be tried for first-degree murder.
Based on these laws, judges convict murderers who have committed honor killings on the assumption that the murdered woman has committed adultery not to death or life imprisonment, but rather to pay the “dia” [blood money]. As such, legal incentives, protected by judges in the area of implementation, are given to men who are accused of killing women. This must be noted as the most important factor behind the rise in the number of honor killings in Iran. ((Kar Mehrangiz 2008))
Polygamy and Temporary Marriage:
In Iran, a man can have more than one wife. Although the Shi-e marriage law, now dominant in Iran, allows a man to simultaneously have up to four wives. A man (married or not), and an unmarried woman (virgin, divorced, or widowed) can enter a temporary marriage contract (sigheh) in which both parties agree on the period of the relationship and the amount of compensation to be paid to the woman. This arrangement requires no witnesses, and no registration is needed.
This form of temporary marriage, according to its proponents, is a measure for curbing free sex and controlling prostitution. A man can have as many sigheh wives as he can afford, but the woman can be involved in no more than one such temporary relationship at any given time and cannot enter another contract before a waiting period (edda) of three months or two menstrual cycles elapse. Sigheh has been very unpopular, particularly among the educated middle-class families and among women who tend to associate it with legalized prostitution.
1. Babayan Kathryn, Afsaneh Najmabadi, and other, 2008 ,Islamicate Sexualities…, , Harvard CMES, page 200
2. Britton Patti PhD, The Art of Sex Coaching: Expanding Your Practice, 2005, W.W. Norton& Company, New Yourk, Page 61
3. Duran, Khalid. Homosexuality in Islam, Swidler, Anne (ed.) “Homosexuality and World Religions” (1993). Trinity Press International, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
4. Kar Mehrangiz, Honor killing, 2004,www.roozonline.com/english/archives/2008/02/.html
5. Paula E. Drew, Ph.D ,Iran, Jomhoori-Islam-Iran, www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/iran.html
6. Safra Project, Resource Project for LBTQ Muslim women, Country Information Report, Iran, 2004, P.O. Box 35929, London, N17 OWB, England, UK, http://www.safraproject.org
7. The universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nation High Commissary for Human Rights, 1948, http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html
8. ‘No homosexuals in Iran’: Ahmadinejad , September 24,2007- AFP http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5hATGOzv6YSmgeMY1zdYbdpyrG2cw
9. (Shaykh Moslahaldin Sa’di , The Gulistan , Chapter V , On Love and Youth, Written 1258 A.C.E.)
10 . Afary Janet, Anderson Kevin B., Foucault and the Iranian Revolution: Gender and the Seductions of Islamism, University Of Chicago Press; annotated edition edition (June 20, 2005
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The Chicago School of Professional Psychology- Los Angeles, California
By : M. Azad Moradian
Editor: Cklara Moradian
The purpose of the following article is to help graduatee and undergraduate level students in the fields of psychology, social sciences, and/or film be able to have a model of how to look at a movie from the perspective of their fields of study and write a paper utilizing their knowledge.
In the following papers movies are analyzed, interpreted, discussed, and ultimately criticized a way that is very specifically related to academic understanding of psychological subjects, which is a different way of looking at film than the traditional way. We hope that you can find the following helpful and we will appreciate your comments as well as any submissions that you might have that could be published in this category
Diagnostic and Treatment of a Couple Therapy, based on the movie: “The Story of “Us
In our analysis of a married couple’s struggles and how the different approaches to couples therapy can help resolve conflicts and allow for healthy and enriching relationships, the married couple in the film “The Story of Us” will be examined from two different therapeutic models. The two chosen models for this paper are the Developmental Model Therapy approach and the Emotional Focused Therapy approach. These two models were chosen because they seemed to fit best with the issues that the couple in the film were facing, and allow the therapist for a clear understanding of the behaviors and patterns that the individuals are displaying, as well as a clear roadmap for .healing
The Story of Us (Can a marriage survive 15 years of marriage?)
If Ben and Katie were to be referred to a therapist who would to look at their relationship from a Developmental model approach he/she would look for the following background information:
Climate of the relationship:
Diagnosis of the Couple relationships:
The current developmental stage for Ben and Katie, before the last episode of the movie is Symbiotic-Differentiating, with hostile-dependent level for Katie’s Symbiotic stage of developmental couple relationship.
Treatment and recommendation:
If Ben and Katie were to be referred to a therapist who would to look at their relationship from the Emotional Focused Therapy model approach he/she would look for the following background information:
In a short overview of the couple’s relationship, we can see a number of reasons Ben and Katie need Emotional Focused Therapy. These include, but are not limited to, a lack of communication, disagreements over priorities, and disproportionate household responsibilities. These issues are mostly about the quality of the couple’s marriage. The partner’s feelings about their marriage are influenced by their daily relationship. They have simply pretended everything in their relationships is fine; therefore, they have not received any natural support from their friends and family. Katie is clearly frustrated with Ben’s behaviors, but she is not able to communicate in an appropriate way. Ben is not satisfied with Katie’s behaviors, her anger, temper tantrums, and their private intimate relationship, but he fears expressing his feelings in order to prevent Katie’s overreaction. The story of them should be rewritten with the help of a therapist. Based on the background of the family, rapid intervention should is necessary to change the negative dynamic of the couple. Emotional focused therapy is able to focus on a positive drive to change the couple’s relationship.
Process of the EFT Model:
2. “Restructuring or changing interaction Positions”: This stage includes steps 5 through 7. The therapist focuses on one partner in steps 5 to find out any individual emotions, angers, feelings, which act or react within the couple relationships. Any individual patterns and habits, which may have a role on the couple dynamic. Therapists will focus on Katie’s criticizing, blaming, and nagging towards Ben and help her to soften her patterns to express her feelings towards her husband and marriage. The therapist is able to acknowledge that most of Katie’s feeling come from her obsession compulsion and her unrealistic feelings about the marriage. In step 6, the therapist will switch focus to the opposite partner and address his patterns based on the information that is found from each individual. Ben needs help gaining cognition about the ways he is failing to communicate with Katie or how he can be more constructive. Katie needs more compliments and positive responses to what she is doing for the family, and Ben has to understand Katie’s limitations on a daily basis about the household responsibilities. Step 7 will be a couple session, which the therapist will discuss the couple dynamic and how the individual’s needs are able to affect the couple’s relationship. In this step, each partner should be able to express their feelings toward each other without any harsh feelings, and anger, exactly the same way they did with the therapist.
|Theories of Family Therapy, Based on the film: “Ordinary People”
The Chicago School of Professional Psychology- Los Angeles, California
By : M. Azad Moradian
Editor: Cklara Moradian
The purpose of the following article is to help graduate and undergraduate level students in the fields of psychology, social sciences, and/or film be able to have a model of how to look at a movie from the perspective of their fields of study and write a paper utilizing their knowledge.
The family chosen to be analyzed from two different family therapy theoretical perspectives, as well as from the perspective of a potential family who might reach out to bee seen by a therapist is the Jarrett’s family based on the film Ordinary People.
The two models chosen are Structural Family Therapy Theory and Emotional Focused Couple Therapy Theory. These theories were examined due to the family’s observed dynamic, interactions, communication methods, and need for intervention.
In this paper, each individual member of the family will be looked at from the theoretical perspective of each model and put into context of a family dynamic and how each of their relations affect one another.
Some ideas and intervention methods will be offered based on each theoretical model to move the family towards a healthier and more enriching relationship.
Director: Robert Redford
Writers: Judith Guest (Novel)
Alvin Sargent (Screenplay)
Main Actors: Donald Sutherland, Judd Hirsch, And Timothy Hutton
Main Actress: Mary Tyler Moore And Elizabeth McGovern
Release Date: 2 March 1981 (Sweden)
Awards: Won 4 Oscars. Another 14 wins & 8 nominations
A Paramount Picture (USA)Overview of the movie:
Ordinary People is one of the very few Hollywood movies that at best realistically and at worst again realistically looks at a family struck by tragedy. It depicts what might happen to an upper middle-class family when tragedy strikes unexpectedly, and order is turned into chaos. Everyone must, however, continue to upkeep a mask of normalcy for society and for each other. The film sheds light into a family, due to a tragedy, has turned into separate individuals inhabiting the same house, who cannot communicate their grief effectively. It realistically, without over dramatization, look into misplaced guilt at every level. The family’s inability to work together as a system through the tragedies lead them down to a path where they each felt an individual breakdown and ultimately the family as a dynamic.
Conrad is the Identified Patient (IP) of the Jarrett family. He is the youngest son of the family. A High School student recently returned home from a four months hospital stay after a serious suicide attempt. He exhibits signs of depression and PTSD. He has trouble sleeping and/or has nightmares of trauma, which might have triggered his symptoms. He blames himself for a boating accident, which killed his brother. He does not have an appetite, has very little social contact with friends, cannot concentrate in class, is faltering in swimming team, and does not display a good relationship with his parents.
We are introduced to Beth, Conrad’s mother, who in the first interaction with her only son shoves his breakfast in the disposer without any hesitation when he says he is not hungry. Clearly, a communication barrier is present, as well as a very subtle passive-aggressive hostility from Beth towards both Conrad and Calvin.
Our introduction to our key characters shows right away that there is conflict within this family. That not only is this family in grief, but that each member is struggling to communicate effectively, and there is an unhealthy power dynamic within this structure.
The pattern that we see is a complimentary role of tough-mother/tender-father.
The mother in this family makes most of the decisions, such as trips for herself and her husband, checking bills after returning from a trip, buying the shirts her teenage son should wear, and even what shoes her husband should wear during their son’s funeral. Her need for so much power and control, for so much structure, leads to a great deal of tension within the family. She does not like change very much either.
-Beth and her own mother and brother seem to have an extended subsystem. They are the people whom she turns to when she needs a refuge from her own home.
Inflexibility boundaries created by Beth is blocking an easy way to communication and negotiation between family members whenever they need it.
They are confused about their relationships and none of them show a clear sense of belonging within that system of a family.
Based on the structural model the Jarrett family shows a disengagement system in the way they deal with Conrad’s mental and emotional issues.
Therapeutics Goals for the Jarrett family and the process of the therapy based on the Structural Family Therapy Theory:
A family therapist should begin by helping Calvin and Beth gain awareness that Conrad is the identified patient. By challenging them, from separate angles, to look beyond Conrad’s symptoms, and see the patterns and rules within the family structure that might have led to those symptoms. Family should have a chance to look at their behavioral patterns when faced with a problem. Although change within the system is difficult for Beth, keeping the family safe and happy needs a new structure and a new pattern. The transactional period for the family is an intensive work. The new structure will give Calvin more authority to help the family rejoin, taking care of Conrad’s psychological issues, and helping his wife to look at herself from clear glasses with the object of change for the better.
Knowing Beth’s character, based on our observations in this movie it is clear that she will feel blamed within a therapy model of Structural Family Therapy. Beth does not like to publicize the family problems and she feels the same regarding sharing with a family therapist. She does not believe in what a therapist could do for her family because she feels that only she can fix their problems. She repeatedly said that, “this is my family. I don’t want to change. This is me!”
Looking at the Jarrett family from a Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy (EFCT) Theory:
Emotional Focused Couple Therapy Theory is a theory that can best describe the experiences that the Jarrett family is going through. These include, but are not limited to, lack of communication or affective communication, disagreements over what is a priority to each member for example whether to go on vacation or stay to take care of their son’s psychological needs.
In the film, a particular scene which clearly captures a family in conflict and seemingly in different worlds is a memorable scene where Calvin tells his wife Beth that he was very disturbed that she wanted him to change the shoes and shirt he wore to their son Buck’s funeral. To Beth appearances and people’s opinion is everything, even when her favorite son has died. To Calvin what he wore is arbitrary and irrelevant but he had complied at the time without questioning and was unable to contain his pain about that.
The family never sought natural support from their friends and family when they faced crises or tragedies. More often than not, this was due to Beth’s insecure feelings. Beth feels as though she must create an illusion of contentment to the outside world, even if it is at the risk of neglecting her family’s needs. A very interesting scene when this is evident is when Beth finds out from a friend that Conrad has quit the swim team. She becomes very angry and Conrad insists that she is only angry because she found out from someone else.
Conrad is clearly frustrated with his mother’s behaviors, but he is not able to communicate in an appropriate way so he either lashes out or isolates himself.
In the movie, we find out the different individual emotions, angers, feelings, which act or react within the family relationships. Each individual has patterns and habits, which may have a role on the family dynamic. Beth needs help gaining cognition about the ways she is failing to communicate with her son or how she can be more constructive.
Compare and Contrast of Treatment Modalities:
The two theories that seems most appropriate for the family in “ordinary people” is Family Structural Family Therapy Theory (SFT) and Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy Theory (EFCT). Other approaches such as Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy could have also worked but might have underestimated the emotional need of the family to reconnect.
SFT emphasizes the structure of the family and places less focus on the individual. Since the system of the Jarrett family seems to be flawed and leading to pathology in each individual, it is best to focus on the restructuring of that flawed system. The members of the Jarrett family are disconnected and SFT focuses on the family as a whole, which could help them tremendously. SFT would work on the dysfunctional structures already at work in the Jarrett family.
If I were to work with the Jarrett family in “Ordinary People”, I would personally prefer to use the combination of the methods in EFCT, SFT and cognitive behavioral therapy model. I find that in family such as the Jarrett family, who are portrayed by the film as having a good financial and social foundation, who are educated people, that method of focusing on the positive, and on the emotions that live within them might be the best idea. I would certainly recommend that Conrad and Beth both receive intensive individual therapy.
– Gladding, Samuel T. (2007) Family Therapy: history, theory, and practice, Fourth Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall. Pp. 23,112-114,118-122,247